Tuesday, 29 March 2011

HUBUNGAN BILATERAL INDONESIA-MALYSIA IBARAT LAYANG-LAYANG DITIUP ANGIN


Menteri Pendidikan Indonesia, Bapak Muhammad Nuh (kiri) di majlis penyampaian Anugerah Kesarjanaan di Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor Bahru oleh Tuanku Pro-Canselor Sultanah Johor, DYMM Tuanku Raja Zarith Sofeah

"KITA boleh memilih sahabat tetapi tidak boleh memilih tetangga!"
Itulah antara bait kata-kata Menteri Pendidikan Nasional Indonesia Bapak Profesor Dr. Ir. HK Muhammad Nuh, ketika memberi ucapan penerimaan Ijazah Doktor Kehormat Pengurusan Pendidikan daripada Canselor Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), DYMM Raja Zarith Sofia pada 26 Mac lalu.

Kehadiran tetangga adalah takdir, sesuatu yang kita perolehi secara tanpa diduga dan sering kali tidak dapat direncana. Hal ini termasuklah dalam soal kenegaraan dan kejiranan dalam konteks geopolitik.

Dalam keadaan sedemikian, tetangga perlu diterima dengan hati terbuka. Paling baik ialah melayani tetangga dengan keramahan dan sinergi dalam segala lapangan, terutama dalam politik dan pendidikan.

Memang suasana politik sukar diduga yang didorong pelbagai persekitaran yang sukar dikawal. Kadang kala atas nama kepentingan politik, maka dua entiti bergeseran.
Namun "geseran politik" yang kadang kala timbul tidak harus menghangatkan semua lapangan lain antara dua tetangga berjiran.

Dalam keadaan sedemikian, hubungan pendidikan, khususnya pada tahap jaringan kesarjanaan selalunya menenang dan mendamaikan.

Justeru hubungan kesarjanaan perlu terus diperteguh menerusi forum, kerjasama akademik, pertukaran mahasiswa, wacana kesarjanaan, penerbitan dan aktiviti akademik lain secara bersama.

Itulah yang telah dilaksanakan Prof. Muhammad Nuh beberapa tahun sebelum menjadi Menteri Nasional sejak 2007.
Demikian juga antara intipati ucapan beliau pada Majlis Konvokesyen Ke-46 UTM di hadapan lebih 3,000 hadirin.

Nama Prof. Muhammad Nuh adalah nama besar dalam konteks kenegaraan di Indonesia ketika ini. Mencecah usia 51 tahun, beliau dilahirkan di Surabaya, Jawa Timur, pada 17 Jun 1959, merupakan anak ketiga daripada 10 orang adik beradik.

Ayahnya H. Muchammad Nabhani, adalah pengasas Pondok Pesantren Gununganyar Surabaya. Mendapat ijazah sarjana muda pada tahun 1983 dalam jurusan kejuruteraan elektrik di Institut Teknologi Surabaya (ITS). (Dipetik dari Utusan Malaysia, 29 Mac 2011)

Komen
Muhammad Nuh perkukuh hubungan kesarjanaan dua negara
Oleh PROF. ZAINI UJANG,Naib Canselor UTM. Ini adalah catatan beliau.

Artikel seperti ini tidak akan ditemui dalam mana-mana media di Indonesia. Percayalah. Sehingga rakyat di negera itu sendiri mungkin tertanya-tanya bagaimana hubungan dua negara dapat ditingkatkan kalau isu berbangkit seperti ini hanya mainan kata-kata orang media di Malaysia sahaja. Jarang sekali malah tidak ada reaksi responsif dan resiprokal dari pihak media jiran tetangga.

Memang indah dan lunak cadangan dan saran Menteri Pendidikan Indonesia ini. Beliau inginkan hubungan bilateral ditingkatkan. Malah keinginan ini sudah dalam agenda pelbagai pihak di kedua-dua negara sejak berakhirnya era konfrontasi Presiden Soekarno tahun 1965.Namun masih ternyata belum ada kesan yang diharapkan. Keruhnya air di hilir masih belum dapat dijernihkan akibat perkocakan "air di hulu."

Hubungan bilateral ini berada akrab di puncaknya ketika Menteri Penerangan Malaysia, Dato' Mohammad Rahmat (Tok Mat) mengunjungi Menteri Penerangan Indonesia, Bapak Ali Murtopo pada tahun 1980 di rumah sakit d Jakarta. Tok Mat ketika itu sedang dalam rangka kunjungan persahabatan di Indonesia bersama anggota rombongan Persatuan Alumni Perguruan Tinggi Indoneia (PAPTI). Turut dalam kunjungan itu Timbalan Presiden PAPTI, Dato' Prof. Abu Bakar Hamid dari Universiti Malaya. Tok Mat adalah Presiden PAPTI ketika itu.

Sehingga saat ini belum ada apa-apa berita atau laporan yang disiarkan dalam sebarang media negara tetangga itu tentang kunjungan dan penerimaan anugerah kesarjanaan Menteri Pendidikan Indonesia ini di Malaysia, tetapi yakinlah, andainya tersiar laporannya besar kecenderungan ia bakal kurang disenangi untuk dibaca oleh orang awam tempatan di negara tetangga Indonesia itu.

Wednesday, 23 March 2011

KHABAR DARI SEBERANG TAMBAK: NASIB ORANG MELAYU MENJELANG PILIHANRAYA UMUM SINGAPURA

En. David Marshall mantan Perdana Menteri Singapura, sebelum Lee Kuan Yew.

Pandangan di bawah ini adalah daripada seorang warga Singapura yang menamakan dirinya Abdul Kareem yang disiarkan dalam Temasek Review, 22 Februari 2011. Tidak pasti adakah pandangan ini merupakan cerminan pandangan majoriti rakyat keturunan Melayu di pulau republik itu atau ia hanyalah pandangan segelintir orang yang mahu orang Melayu menumpukan perhatian kepada bidang pendidikan. Hal ini dianggap penting demi kelansungan hidup orang Melayu supaya umat Melayu tidak hilang di dunia. Benarkah?

Realitinya begitulah. Hari ini orang Melayu di seberang tambak ini dikatakan berada dalam keadaan kurang menentu tanpa pemimpin yang benar-benar boleh menyatukan kelompok etnisnya. Khabarnya parti orang Melayu yang satu ketika pernah disebut UMNO Singapura tidak memberi impak besar dalam kalangan komunitinya dan mereka rela mengelompok sebagai satu entiti atau kumpulan bebas. Ini bereri kelompok Melayu ini akan menjadi lalang ditiup angin, meliuk ke kiri dan meliuk ke kanan mengikut rentak dan tarian politik perdana .

Masihkan orang Melayu Singapura ingat akan komen Menteri Kanan Lee Kuan Yew pada tahun 1999: “If, for instance, you put in a Malay officer who’s very religious and who has family ties in Malaysia in charge of a machine gun unit, that’s a very tricky business. We’ve got to know his background… I’m saying these things because they are real, and if I don’t think that, and I think even if today the Prime Minister doesn’t think carefully about this, we could have a tragedy.” – Lee Kuan Yew, Straits Times, September 19, 1999.

Inilah yang menjadikan orang Melayu berada dalam dilema.Barangkali. Ditelan mati emak, tak ditelan mati bapak. Ada baiknya para intelek Melayu Singapura yang berpendidikan tinggi menulis sebuah buku yang dinamakan The Singapore Malay Dilemma. Bacalh selengkapnya komen Abd. Kareem di bawah ini:

"In each election over the last decade, PAP has been using a new strategy when fielding new Malay candidates. In the past it had field candidates who had a highest education level of O level or A level. However this is decreasingly the case over the last decade. Instead PAP has been bringing in candidates with impressive educational background such as Malay doctors(Dr.Fatimah Lateef) and academics like (Dr.Faishal Mohamed, Dr.Maliki Osman etc).

During each election when PAP introduce just one of such candidates, the Malay community gets overwhelmed with thrill and awe. They then rush to cast their votes in favor of PAP without reflecting their choice. When PAP announced that one of the reasons why they secured such high success in Sembawang GRC (close to 80% votes) which is a large GRC, they pointed out the high Malay support they have gained. This support was largely because of the Malay voters being overwhelmed by the prospect of a Malay professor (Dr.Maliki Osman) standing for election.

For the upcoming election, PAP has already started its strategy of poster Malay candidates. It has been parading a Malay doctor(Dr.Abdul Razakjr) and a professor (Dr Intan Mokhtar). The incumbents are likely to introduce a few more. In fact there is no limit to the number of top Malay achievers who are queuing up to stand as a PAP candidate to represent PAP policies even though they have been unfair towards the
Malay community. On the other side, the opposition parties have seen a large increase in Malay candidates stepping forward to join the parties but there is so far not a single Malay elite.

This is a poor reflection of the Malay community itself. When you look at the Chinese elites, there have been a few who have stepped onto the risky path of opposition politics such as Tony Tan and his wife. Similarly for Indian elites such as Dr.Vincent Wijayasingha and even Kenneth Jeyaretnam. However amongst the Malay elites,they are increasing offering themselves to the PAP which seem to be able to field every new Malay candiate who is an elite.

The Malay elites have attained their high educational success after enormous hard work and their climb to their career positions is not an easy one. They simply are afraid to take the major risks to join the opposition parties. Fundamentally the Malay elite’s aspirations for his/her community need to exceed aspirations that he/she has for

oneself before he/she will decide to join opposition parties. On the other hand, when it is otherwise, the lures of PAP’s promise of power and money is too sweet to shake off. Therefore one cannot expect more or equal number of Malay elites standing for opposition parties in the next election. Malay elites have not found that level of conviction yet.

However what remains to be seen is if Malay voters will yet again fall for poster Malay elites. Over this current parliamentary term, the Malay elites who were elected at the last election, have done practically nothing meaningful for the community. The political, social and economic outcomes remain dismal as ever, if not worse. It remains unclear if Malay voters will reflect on this reality or if they are going to be swayed by mere token representation.

In the issue of political progress of Malay community, the Malays have nobody else to blame except themselves. Even if Malay elites do not have the courage to join opposition parties, they need to remain dignified to remain independent and stand up to point out how unfair PAP policies are towards the community. They can do this by refusing to stand up for PAP. The Malay voters on the other hand have nobody else to blame as long as they continue to vote for politicians who do not put the community first and foremost before their own political and monetary gain." - Abdul Kareem.

Monday, 21 March 2011

WHAT A STUNNING SPEED THE WEST TOOK TO HAMMER LIBYA!

US State Secretary Hillary Clinton.


World intervenes in Libya, with unusual speed
In diplomatic terms, international military action against Libya's leader went from the brainstorming stage to the shooting-at-tanks stage with stunning speed.

Saturday's launch of military strikes by French, ritish and U.S. forces with Arab backing and U.N. mandate was not universally endorsed. And it's unclear whether it will be fast enough to do what its proponents want, to shore up rebel forces and oust Libya's leader Moammar Gadhafi.

But the cascade of quick, weighty decisions getting there was unusual - ust one of the unusual things about this dramatic operation.

It has the backing of the Arab League, which has balked at other interventions in the Arab world and is known more for lengthy deliberations than action.

And it was initiated by the French, who famously opposd the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003.

It was French President Nicolas Sarkozy who announced that 22 participants in an emergency summit in Paris on Saturday had agreed to launch armed action against Gadhafi's military. And a French fighter jet reported the first strike Saturday afternoon, against a Libyan military vehicle in or near Benghazi, the heart of the uprising against the longtime leader, before over a hundred cruise missiles fired from U.S and British ships slammed into this north African nation.

The action in Libya came after the international community was slow to respond to swelling protests in Tunisia and then Egypt in January and February that toppled longtime autocrats and sparked uprisings around the Arab world.

Leaders and diplomats dawdled less when Libya's Gadhafi started shooting at protesters.

On Feb. 26, the U.N. Security Council imposed sanctions on Gadhafi's regime after just about two days of discussion, and as rebel forces gained ground against the Libyan military.

On March 10, France recognized the opposition Interim Governing Council as the "legitimate representatives of the Libyan people." The next day, the 27-nation European Union offered the opposition similar support.

Support in Arab countries mounted for a no-fly zone. Some members wanted to make sure there was no full-blown Western invasion, and hoped endorsing a no-fly zone would give them more leverage with the West on military plans.

With Gadhafi's forces showing signs of a resurgency, the 22-member Arab League called March 12 for the U.N.'s Security Council to impose a no-fly zone.

That was a crucial moment, especially for the United States. Without Arab support, any intervention would have risked being seen as a Western occupation.

France and Britain pushed for a new, stronger U.N. resolution. Washington, initially reluctant, said even a no-fly zone wouldn't be enough, paving the way for authorization of a draft calling for "all necessary measures" to protect civilians.

That resolution won U.N. adoption Thursday, March 17.

On Friday, the U.S., France and Britain sent Gadhafi a letter telling him a cease-fire must begin immediately, or risk the consequences.

On Saturday morning, Gadhafi's forces defied their own cease-fire, aiming new strikes on Benghazi.

Western warplanes and warships amassed around the Mediterranean, from Canada, Britain, Denmark, the United States.

Sarkozy hastily gathered 22 high-powered guests for a lunch summit Saturday: U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki-moon, British Prime Minister David Cameron, U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, Arab League Secretary General Amr Moussa, and top officials from around Europe and Arab countries.

After lunch, Sarkozy announced that the political leaders had agreed to launch military action. French planes, he said, were already in the air.

Ninety minutes later, French military officials reported their first strike.

This was all very different from past protracted, divisive U.N. debates over military intervention. In 2002-2003, France especially was vehemently opposed to action in Iraq, and Britain was forced to withdraw a U.N. resolution authorizing force against Saddam Hussein. The United States then organized a coalition without U.N. approval.

On Saturday, the U.N. chief hailed the Paris summit on Libya as a success.

It's "never too late" to undertake an operation like this, Ban said. "Arab countries, Europeans, Americans - they were all in one voice," he said.

U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton said "we have every reason to fear that left unchecked, Gadhafi will commit unspeakable atrocities."

Cameron said after the summit: "We have to make it stop. ... The time for action has come, it needs to be urgent."

Canada's Prime Minister Stephen Harper, also in Paris, said Gadhafi's claim of a cease-fire "was an obvious lie from the beginning."

The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), an umbrella organization representing 57 Muslim nations, called on member states to help implement the U.N. resolution and to establish contacts with the Libyan opposition.

But several countries remain cautious or openly critical about the risky operation.

Russia's Foreign Ministry said it noted the launch of operations "with regret," and noted that the U.N. resolution authorizing them was "hastily approved."

Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez, who has longstanding ties to Gadhafi, said the U.S. and its allies simply want to "seize Libya's oil" and that the United Nations has "infringed on its fundamental principles."

Germany's Chancellor Angela Merkel said she backed the operation but added, "We will not participate with our own soldiers." Cyprus, in the Mediterranean northeast of Libya, said it didn't want to get involved.

NATO is divided over whether it should take a leading role or just provide support to air forces already engaged in the mission.

In Brussels, NATO's top decision-making body appeared poised to decide on Sunday "if and how the alliance will join" the effort, said Martin Povejsil, the Czech Republic's envoy to NATO.

While Qatar and the United Arab Emirates are taking part, according to French Foreign Minister Alain Juppe, it's unclear whether bigger Arab nations such as Saudi Arabia could join in.

Sarkozy acknowledged the risks of the operation, and insisted it did not amount to an international occupation force.

"There is still time for Col. Gadhafi to avoid the worst by complying without delay and without reservations to all the demands of the international community. The door of diplomacy will reopen at the moment when the aggressions cease," Sarkozy said.

Canada's Harper acknowledged that the diplomatic push will result in bloodshed.

"We should not kid ourselves," he told reporters in Paris. "One cannot promise perfection, or that there will not be casualties on our side."

But he added, "We're dealing with a regime that will not be satisfied with the reimposition of its authority. ... They will massacre every single individual they remotely suspect of disloyalty." Associated Press and Jakarta Post, 20 March 2011.

Comments:
There is nothing to comment except that when it comes to Israel-Palestine conflict, every UN resolutions has been ignored or defied by Israel. And nobody seems to care, and surely not from the West. But look at the speed of the UN resolution of No-Fly-Zone on Libya. Who will be the victims: The Libyan people: Loyalists to the Libyan President and the so-called pro-democracy groups (the rebels).

Tuesday, 15 March 2011

ANTARA DAN BERNAMA MAHU BIKIN FILEM DOKUMENTARI : KITA PERKUKUH HUBUNGAN YOK!

Dato' Seri Dr. Rais Yatim, Menteri Komunikasi, Kebudayaan, Kesenian dan Warisan


Jom kita membeli-belah di Bandung diselitkan oleh seorang yang menggelarkan dirinya Mamat . Menurut berita, Berita Nasional Malaysia (BERNAMA) dan Kantor Berita Nasional Indonesia ( ANTARA) setuju untuk bekerjasama menerbitkan dokumentari untuk memperkukuh hubungan kerajaan, masyarakat dan budaya Malaysia dan Indonesia. Menurut sumber, “Patutnya perkara ini sudah lama difikirkan. Banyak hubungan positif yang boleh dijalankan.” (Berita Harian 14 Mac 2011).

Mengapa Mamat (orang dalam?) buat komen begini tak pasti. Adakah Mamat sudah jelak dengan cerita dan isu hubungan benci- tapi- rindu kedua-dua Negara yang tidak berkesudahan sejak dulu?. Atau sememangnya Mamat ini jujur dan ikhlas dengan komennya. Siapa tidak yakin buat masa ini Bandung adalah syurga membeli-belah buat rakyat Malaysia. Dengan kos pulang pergi yang munasabah murah pengunjung dari Malaysia boleh ke Bandung hampir setiap hari. Atau berkunjung seminggu sekali.
Memang pun cerita nak memperkukuh hubungan dua hala Malaysia-Indonesia ini sudah berjeman (kata orang kampong), sejak selepas konfrontasi tahun 1965 lagi. Tetapi dalam banyak hal ada sesetengah yang berkata hanya pihak Malaysia, terutama wartawannya sahaja yang bersungguh-sungguh hendak memperkukuh hubungan sedangkan di sebelah sana kelihatan tidak pula begitu.

Terlalu banyak isu yang ditimbulkan dan kononnya pihak Malaysia dipersalahkan.Ada isu Ambalat (pertikaian wilayah), ada isu amah (kononnya banyak dianiaya oleh majikan Malaysia) dan isu-isu yang “sewaktu dengannya”. Sedihnya masih terus juga wujud rasa syak wasangka, prejudis dan persepsi serta sikap kurang enak dalam hubungan dua Negara ini sehingga kekl jolokan bahawa hubungan adalah antara adik dan abang. Tentunya Indonesia adalah abang dan Malaysia adalah adik.

Dalam hal ini ada juga sesetangah kalangan orang buku yang mempersoalkan apa sudah jadi dengan usahasama penerbitan buku dua Negara melalui Fokeps (Forum Kerjasama Penerbitan Serantau) yang perjanjiannya dilancar dan dimeterai di Johor Bahru lebih satu dekad lalu. Ketika itu Malaysia diwakili Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (DBP) sementara Indonesia diwakili Ikatan Penerbit Buku Indonesia (IKAPI). Barangkali setelah sekian banyk judul buku diterbitkan dan keuntungannya sudah diraih bersama. Dengar khabar melalui perjanjian, DBP diberi tanggungjawab mebiayai sejumlah besar kos terbit manakala Indonesia mengedarkannya di Negara abang itu.

Sekarang ini timbul pula kisah hendak mengadakan penerbitan filem dokumentari dengan tujuan yang sama, iaitu antara lain untuk memperkukuh hubungan. Setelah berita itu disiarkan di akhbar-akhbar Malaysia ada pula yang gatal-gatal tangan mahu mencari berita itu di koran-koran Indonesia, baik di Jakarta mahupun Bandung. Mereka dakwa tidak menemui sebarang berita walaupun dalam bentuk pengisi ruang (filler).Sehingga timbul soalan apakah Malaysia sahaja yang begitu bersungguh-sungguh hendak menperkukuh hubungan sedangkan orang di sana tak kisah pun.

Belum lama dulu diberitakan sejumlah besar wartawan Malaysia mengadakan pertemuan dengan wartawan Indonesia di Bandung dan pertemuan itu dirasmikan oeh seorang menteri dari Malaysia. Apa Rumusannya dan juga follow-upnya? Barnagkali masih tersimpan dalam laci. Maka benarlah seperti kata Mamat: Jom kita membeli-belah di Bandung! Usaha seperti ini secara tidak langsung akan tetap memperkukuh hubungan kedua-dua Negara sambil itu sempat pula berhibur dengan filem-filem dokumentari. Malaysia akan membiayai kos pengeluaran dan Indonesia akan mengedarkannya lewat versinya sendiri. Kalau tidak nanti dikhuatiri audien Indonesia mungkin tidak akan mengerti. Ya toh?

Mungkin juga ya Mamat! Kita ke Bandung Yok! Ke Pasar Baru untuk belanja. Makan murah, barang murah dan segala-galanya murah Kok!

Thursday, 3 March 2011

MELAYU S'PURA CARI PERLINDUNGAN EKONOMI DI JB? BIAR BETUL!

Mantan Perdana Menteri Singapura En. Goh Chok Tong.


Kolumnis Temasek Review, terbitan Singapura,17 Februari 2011 Zahara Abdullah menulis antara lain: I have been coming across several Malay families who are renting out their HDB flats or even selling their HDB flats and living in Johor Bahru and commuting to Singapore. Each family had the same reason to give. They are unable to afford the cost of living in Singapore.

Tulisnya lagi: A few days ago, a friend of mine who is a senior professional in logistics industry claimed that around 40% of the Malay despatch riders live in Johor Bahru. However I am unable to verify this. However when I asked others in logistics industry, they did agree that there are large number of families, where the breadwinner works as a despatch rider, have indeed relocated to JB due to cost pressures in Singapore. These despatch riders earn less than $1000 per month and they are unable to cope even when they have two children.

“It does not seem to be the case that all the families that shifted are having a single income earner. There are indeed families in which both the couples are working and yet they are unable to afford to live in Singapore. The few families that I managed to talk to have a household income of less than $2000 a month. They shared with me that given the high costs they face which come along with work e.g. lunch meals, transport, clothings etc etc they are left with little to afford the other family expenses such as grocery, electricity etc.

Another group of Malay families who make up this trend of Malay families shifting to JB include those who are unable to service their HDB loans. Apparently some of these families are having problems paying their HDB mortgages and out of desperation not to loose their HDB flats they rather rent it out and shift to JB.
The last group of Malay families that I came across are those who faced life shocks such as retrenchment, illness etc and they were unable to ride through the financial turblence that came along. Hence they shifted to JB to keep afloat…
(klik http://www.temasekreview.com untuk tulisan selengkapnya)

Kolumnis ini mencabar 12 Ahli Parlimen Melayu di Negara pulau itu menilai kedudukan kumpulan Melayu ini dan menyelesaikan serta memudahkan mereka kembali tinggal di Singapura. Adakah benar Melyu Singapura yang menurut statistik 2009 yang jumlahnya 13.4% berbanding China (74.2%) dan India (9.2%) itu berada dalam kesempitan ekonomi yang amat memerlukan bantuan Kerajaan Peoples’ Action Party (PAP) Singapura?
Reaksi kepada pandangan Zahara ini pelbagai. Terdapat 110 komen pro dan kontra daripada penduduk pulau itu.

Satu komen daripada Mai I Wan antara lain berbunyi: These less fortunate fellow citizens won’t get help from the gahmen! It’s left to us especially you, the Malay community to help them by voting out the PAPpy! What SG truly needs and in urgent need is a gahmen with humility! C’mon! Let’s get united and do what we need to do to help our less fortunate citizens! Their future, more or less lies in our hands.

Zahara mempersoalkan tanggapan Kerajaan Singapura bahawa orang Melayu telah bertambah maju di bawah Kerajaan PAP. Namun seperti jelas Zahara belum pernah sejak tahun 1959 terdapat begitu ramai orang Melayu Singapura yang mencari perlindungan ekonomi di Johor Bahru. Bagaimanapun, seorang penulis Singapura, yang juga seorang bekas wartawan pernah membayangkan satu ketika dahulu bahawa “Melayu Singapura antara yang paling gigih meningkatkan keupayaan diri (berdikari dalam bidang ekonomi terutamanya) setanding kaum-kaum lain seperti Cina dan India di pulau itu. Dan beliau bangga dengan kegigihan Melayu ini. Katanya, “Kami tidak memerlukan bentuan sesiapa, tidak juga daripada pemeritah.”

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